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tv   Balfour Seeds Of Discord  Al Jazeera  May 6, 2018 11:00pm-12:01am +03

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hello there i'm barbara starr in london these are the top stories on iraq vote counting is underway in lebanon's first parliamentary elections in nine years there are three point six million eligible voters but turnout has been low and it's expected to fall short of the fifty four percent who voted back in two thousand and nine lebanon is using a new system based on proportional representation but it's unlikely to upset the overall balance of power said holder has more now from beirut. judd phone is among the eight hundred thousand voters who are eligible to cast their ballot for the first time lebanon hasn't had an election in nine years political wrangling and disagreement over a new alec torah law were to blame now this twenty three year old hopes his vote will make a difference give people. the money you
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need to read the world. more and more voices are calling for change and it's not just the young lebanese are concerned about the growing level of poverty and unemployment in the country. on the unit. we want change we want to new generation of leaders who know what they used to meet with some of the medicine. this is the first time where so many independent candidates joined the electoral battle the new law which is based on proportional representation opens the door for these candidates to try to break the political elites hold on power but they acknowledge they can only make a small difference. and we know we will win all the one hundred twenty eight seats but even if we get eight ten or twelve seats we are satisfied because we know we will be able to expand our presence later on they are up against a political establishment that has been in power for years if not decades even since the days of the civil war in the one nine hundred eighty s.
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if those politicians are not running their sons or grandsons are and they have been accused of using their office for electoral gains. there are people who vote for candidates who help them this is wrong with that is how it has always been . those are the so-called traditional voters who not only benefit from a politician or party but are often loyal to their sect before the nation lebanon's parties are sectarian among them the iranian backed shia armed group hezbollah. hezbollah the window one day and the fall destroyed hezbollah has been. a wonderful to them hezbollah and its allies are expected to win the most seats in parliament further strengthening their power which has been growing in recent years. a lot has happened since the last election in two thousand and nine there was political instability the post of the presidency was vacant for two years until late two
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thousand and sixteen when lebanon's political rivals reached a compromise deal a president was elected a national unity government was formed headed by prime minister saddle heavy that included members of hezbollah. prime minister how did he wants to secure enough votes to ensure his leadership of the sydney community and ensure his return to the premiership he has exchanged harsh words with hezbollah during campaigning but that is an expected part of the election rhetoric in lebanon both sides know they need to work together if they want national unity and this divided nation. beirut. at least thirteen people have died in a bomb attack in afghanistan the explosion happened at a mosque in the eastern province of cost police suspect it may have been targeted because it was being used as a voter registration center for october is a parliamentary election the president of iran has warned the u.s. it will regret quitting the nuclear deal as the deadline looms for president trying
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to make a decision a son rouhani says iran has plans to respond if trump pulls out of the pact trump has repeatedly said he wants to leave the two thousand and fifteen agreement alist european allies can fix what he calls flaws within the deal. pakistani police say the suspect behind the attempted assassination of the interior minister has links to an old for a religious political party the twenty one year old man was arrested shortly after allegedly shooting and wounding a son. coming up next for seeds of discord. i
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. was was. was. was. was. absolutely. the voice of david ben-gurion declaring based obvious mint of the
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state of israel in maine one nine hundred forty eight. the balfour declaration was a letter sent by british foreign secretary arthur balfour to a member of the british house of lords child on the second of november one thousand nine hundred seventeen. this letter sent to a leading figure in the british jewish community one hundred years ago had repercussions which even its authors cannot have imagined. whatever its real intentions it went on to have a profound impact on the middle east and its people. and its effects still resonates across the region today.
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in one nine hundred fourteen these soldiers were fighting on the battlefields of europe in the first world war the allies britain france and russia fought the central powers of germany austria-hungary and the ottoman empire for four years but the land and sea war was not the only battleground. muscle was also being flexed behind closed doors as allies conspired how to redraw maps to their own advantage when the conflict eventually ceased. sir mark sykes for the british and french. for the french plotted how to divide the arab lands of the ottoman empire assuming it would finally fall. the psychs
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pekoe agreement plan secretly to divide it into french and british spheres of influence france taking most of the levant southern anatolia and the mosul area while the british extended their control over the southern levant expanding eastwards to baghdad and basra and all the nand between the arabian gulf and the french territory. historic palestine then still part of the ottoman empire was a bone of contention and would be put under international administration. that it's in force. all day but too long but it. didn't mean that false. in. their. eyes. you're good at your phrase. the men i
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don't. or deceit there clay. down that you and al that down there change it up and he can do exactly what it developed for you i learned a little funny to keep our. was it that all of them. with your how to have fought can be when i came. russia i think the british felt that there had not been enough government involvement in concluding the states because agreement with the french and the process they had not really protected their interests well enough for a post world war era in which the british empire would continue to seek to be a dominant force in european affairs and so really officials across whitehall including mark sykes and self felt it was a bad deal. have ilja go. at it in the future an alcoholic so you need you in the
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free market does that mean and you hold your own. level of the one your home your new shoot fearful of the walking people of well an article in the have been many who are levy. and i many of clocks and i mean i look at that before and it's a huge significance that when they're making these discussions jews and scientists are not discussed jews were not to feature in the new coffee at the middle east which was to be based on the idea of the arab nation. zionism was the movement supporting the reestablishment of a jewish homeland in the area defined as the historic land of israel. the movement was active in early twentieth century london especially because of the persecution of jews in russia and eastern europe. theodore hertz all had found
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a design a movement in the late one nine hundred century but jewish people in western europe had not rushed to support it because they were integrating quite successfully into society zionists believed that all jews should someday returned to. that country one of the problems was that palestine belong to the ottoman empire and the ottoman empire was not clear that it wanted massive jewish immigration into palestine and the british government offered to let jews move unimpeded in great numbers into uganda if they wished. but in any event it really didn't happen and it didn't happen because a majority of scientists felt that hurtful was selling them out and that the only place for jews to move back to were at least conscious zionist jews to move back to was palestine in this i think britain began to look at the zionist movement as
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a possible partner in justifying a reed to go she ations of their agreement with the french you see for britain simply to claim territory against what they'd already concluded in the green that with france could create diplomatic problems for the british but if they were to make a claim to palestine not out of self interest but in order to advance a great historic ideal of the restoration of the jewish people to the legal homeland that this could justify an adjustment of the term of the sites because. in a way that the french would accept the british wanted somehow and more and more increasingly they felt that the jews held the key to winning the war. and so they had to figure out how to bribe the jews to support them. sir mark sykes had succeeded in drawing the line he wanted from
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a curry in the west to kirkuk in the east but for some in government this was not enough. the british were using the jewish national movement to secure palestine for themselves is this is what high vitamin is really good. defiant to open ears to downing street in the foreign office in the colonial office and it's paving the way towards that critical decision in november of one nine hundred seventeen and so i think you can direct you can draw a direct connection between britain's sudden ignored of and of zionism an idea that ideal. and what they were dissatisfied with in the term the psychs pico. i am fight for men was a chemistry lecturer in manchester who had become a prominent member of the british zionist movement he was politically well connected and rubbed shoulders with senior figures in government so high on vitamin
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was russian by birth he was a chemist. and then he joined the zionist movement. he climbed in the zionist movement he moved to great britain before the war well before the war maybe ten years before the war began he was not before the war very well known in the english zionist movement he was pretty well known in the world zionist federation but he was by no means the most visible zionist when world war one began in great britain. invites mainly to roads in his memoirs about having been introduced to a british government minister herbert samuel. samuel was jewish but vitamin was apparently concerned that he might be anti zionist. however herbert samual turned out to be extremely receptive to vitamin and went on to write
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an official memo in one nine hundred fifteen setting out a number of different possibilities for palestine and the jewish people. and was here. some. health minister. who were can make an island through the number b.c.'s it was who were caught up with the car and philosophy and. ruefully collaton have been alamy or. who were a when your hoodie. on america's most. elaborate on the cut up with africa. and nor should there still be philosophy in badminton tell how to help him a lot and then let him a lot and hard see you're the only hoodie i would see that wish him
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a really funny year for lusty and. plenty for me had the lady who the commonwealth yannick am but he didn't find willing ears in whitehall or the colonial office for schemes that involved the establishment of a jewish state in palestine britain was really concerned with two things by the time that the first world war had broken out they wanted to with the war first and foremost this was an imperative for the survival of britain and its empire and secondly they wanted to ensure that coming out of the war victorious that their empire would benefit from the victory so at this stage high invites and herbert samuels ideas about the rights of the jews to resettle in palestine did not find much sympathy in the corridors of power in london. i disappointed fights munro to a friend asking whether there wasn't at least a discussion to be had about what he called the chance for the jewish people. i
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realize of course he went on we cannot claim anything we are much too atomized for it's. what the debate did do however was to throw together fights man the russian jewish immigrants searching for a homeland and refuge from persecution with herbert samuel and lord rothschild for members of the british jewish elite established in society and part of the political and capitalist class. so it isn't for the most part of course all of the community was actually in the minority but certainly most of all within the jewish elite because it threatened the notion of them as one hundred percent committed members of british society and this was complete and that for somebody like edwin montague to become secretary of state for india for
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him zionism is his worst nightmare the idea that jews are not satisfied simply with being citizens of britain or other countries around the world they're always longing to go back to the land of israel for him he wanted to demonstrate that the jews of britain were first and foremost british it's important to remember that for people like rothschild zionism it actually been a threat you see the elite in british jewellery had fought for generations to gain acceptance in british society it was only with the arrival of disraeli and that i can century that jews entered parliament and could rise to become prime minister and for people of. so high finance or banking interests the really lete of the jewish community in britain their struggle to demonstrate their place in british society the zionists with its claims that jews were
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a people apart and should be a nationalist movement to their own right were anathema with their early they embody the army of europe and how christian and if they were corrupt better by the how to get. hold. of but i would be when he. meant get fifty i would probably be the old the field but i would be everyman jamming joe all up you and i do have to shear. a bit of time even for my honey brand of beer and sammy of bosh who will of us out the and if mark mr you how to say you you well it's an x. vitamin vien. in much of the love in your mind of the need of mental stability keep bill think there is a bleed t. u. haul them into yemen vitamin low showing to look into the sea the fim.
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it's vitamin that makes the difference and i think he was probably unique in his ability to persuade the leading british figures. that the jews were in fact a vast submarine eone influence which they were not. that all jews were zionists which was far from the truth and therefore the big key to winning jewish support was to offer them palestine vitamin talked up the degree to which the jewish community supported zionism in order to get his message across to the government. but for the british it seemed to be about self interest about winning the war recognizing zionism would be closely linked to gaining global juice the poor it put the objective on which should start its future resting so the british
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motives for supporting zionism will be we can boil it down to two elements of british self interest at that time not an emotional interest in science them or a love of jews and the jewish plight and the desire for a return of the jews to the holy land no for very specific self interests matters of policy they were first of all all of the british government agreed that they wanted to mobilize behind britain and the allies this idea of jewish power in the world they were all of the different policy elites in the war believe this in the notion that jews have tremendous influence in the corridors of power around the globe if the british government appeared to support zionism they would win over world jewry to their side and all that that entails the british were convinced that zionism. it was really at the center of the jewish home. in maine one nine hundred
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sixteen sir mark sykes had agreed his tikrit deal with the french sykes picoult would form the basis of the future carve up of the old ottoman empire. so he immediately turned his attention to palestine still part of the ottoman empire and how to use the finest ambitions to outmaneuver the french. formal contact between the british government and the zionist followed he immediately phoned herbert samuel and told him about the plan and herbert samuel then phoned him vitamin and vitamin brought with him in a home sokolow this meeting took place on the eleventh of april one thousand nine hundred seen it took place at moses castors house in maida vale. and gaster wrote in his diary afterwards how proud he was that this meeting which he thought
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was the most important meeting that had ever taken place in the history of zionism had taken place at his house. mark sykes the. head of our once she doesn't know my gust of law nowhere can and will must stand the jelly hoodie must by then. rise one who only in the north who are in the fight that will do the most disgusted very quickly understands that sykes is looking to gain support from suppose it jewish power in the world and gets to works with this idea and manipulates this to consolidate sykes's interest in science and we see actually the british government becomes very close already in nazi sixteen of issuing a public declaration of support for zionism there in the end this doesn't happen that year the planned sikes got herbert samuels to pass on to the zionist leaders
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involved british french administration of palestine and a charter guaranteeing british support for sign ism. but his idea was rejected. they didn't want an anglo-french condominium in palestine they wanted the british to protect them not the french and that's because they thought that the french always sort of converted their colonized people into becoming frenchmen and what they wanted was to remain as self conscious jews and they thought that the british would leave them alone and let them do that and mushy how to live been begun by big circle of we were hurrying to share a blue team. the work him wanted the bill you might not
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need committee got down where you did doesn't go to want to eat at them it would get done but the hollywood the who you deem know you to name a. matter. robert the more merit in that then. is. bolstered by their newfound credibility the british zionists thought about making specific demands after the sykes meeting but events soon overtook them . on the sixth of december one thousand nine hundred sixteen british prime minister asquith resigned. in the change of government arthur balfour became foreign secretary under prime minister david lloyd george. lloyd george. as the half away from us back recently was iraq. december.
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and i'll. be here with that see a year to sunday and one more obama. side but. it's a completely. your own to the people of st. well for one was of rather philosophical bent and i think he wanted to think in theological terms he wanted to think in historical terms. and it was with that frame of mind i think that he approached the whole question seriously at the fall of. sarina. i would have a back and marsh minutes of opposite sex because i received as it was i thought
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a comic lord george. i mean a commandment kamau but at our. school a while before those of us towards him. you know i mean it was among men and he and i mean david lloyd george. balfour and all of those who supported the perfect question within the british government we can absolutely categorize as being riven with anti semitic thinking and not only that but the thinking behind the balfour declaration that drove them to the balfour declaration was from this anti semitic thought the idea of jewish power of jewish that he said this and of a unified jewish attachment to zionism above all else. whatever its basis the relationship between the british dynasty and the government would continue to grow throughout the one nine hundred seventeen. leading to the
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declaration that would change the face of the middle east and ultimately determine the destinies of two different peoples. made on al-jazeera venezuela will hold a snap election as president maduro aims to retain control of what lies ahead for a country that has been waiting for light at the end of a long tunnel people in power ross the top u.s. general in afghanistan about his plans for defeating by the taliban and an isis insurgency. struggling with security issues and economic uncertainty iraq is finally set to hold elections as an unseen global battle rages for results as beneath our oceans we all skip the seabed is a territory still to be claimed. commemorating seventy years from now al-jazeera
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examines what has changed in the past seven decades on both sides of this conflict made on al-jazeera. we understand the differences and the similarities of cultures across the world. so no matter where you call home al-jazeera will bring you the news and current of things that matter to you. al-jazeera and under put it well on. u.s. and british companies have announced the biggest discovery of natural gas in west africa but what to do with these untapped natural resources is already a source of heated debate nothing much has changed they still spend most of the days looking forward to for the dry riverbed like this one five years on the syrians still feel battered or even those who managed to escape their countries haven't truly been able to escape the war.
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hello i'm barbara starr in london and these are the top stories on al-jazeera vote counting is underway in lebanon's first parliamentary election in nine years initial reports suggest turnout has been less than fifty percent lebanon is using a new system based on proportional representation but it's unlikely to upset the overall balance of power has more now on why the vote matters this is why it's a crucial moment for everyone for president michel old because he wants to consolidate he wants his party the three past few chick movement to consolidate gains above the christian community it is crucial for hizbullah which wants to consider date its gaze in the in its stronghold particularly in the valley of southern lebanon to tell the international community and the libyan is that he has the trust of its own people it is also crucial for prime minister saddle hariri as
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you know historically speaking of the sunni's have been divided there are key players the sunni players divided over who has to have the biggest said said that how do you want to project himself as the voice of the sin the community. at least thirteen people have died in a bomb attack in afghanistan the explosion happened at a mosque in the eastern province of cost more than thirty people have been injured . iran's president has warned the u.s. will regret quitting the nuclear deal as the deadline looms for president trump to make a decision as some rouhani says iran has plans to respond if trump holds out of the pact trump has repeatedly said he wants to leave the two thousand and fifteen agreement unless european allies can fix what he calls flaws in the deal. pakistani police say the suspect behind the attempted assassination of the interior minister has links to an ultra religious political party which strongly opposes blasphemy
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the twenty one year old man was arrested shortly after allegedly shooting in a room being a sun it about following a rally in point of province. there have been more evacuations in hawaii as molten lava from a volcano continues to threaten residential areas around two thousand people have now been forced to leave their homes to escape lava and poisonous gas those are the stories that balfour seeds of discord continues in a moment i'll have the news hour for you in less than half an hour. the first world war pitted britain france and russia against germany austria hungary and the ottoman empire the british in the shape of the diplomats or mark sykes who were determined to divide autumn in territory in a way that best suited them once the war was over for their own strategic interests
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. by nine hundred seventeen the war was shifting in the allies favor and in the middle east the british were moving through sinai towards the borders of historic palestine. further north the russian revolution in february one nine hundred seventeen cast doubt on russia's continued involvement in the war. as britain and france tried to outmaneuver one another the british zionist movement took on increasing political importance. sikes was to get back in touch with scientists and think about how to incorporate sallis in british planning for palestine and at this moment we see a hugely important meeting taking place in the home of most disgusting maida vale
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in february seventeen and this is the point in which sykes mates for the first time haim fight smith and the home circle of. another time in this in which it's discussed what the zionists are looking for and the british interest in zionism so he had to bring the zionists along without divulging what were the secret agreements that britain and france had come to with regard to palestine which was that they would jointly administer parts of palestine at this meeting for the british government was sykes and herbert samuel he was there on the other side there were. vitamin and sokolow and there was moses gaster and he brought a couple of his allies because he realised that vitamin was beginning to push him out of the way the other very important figure was james rothschild who attended
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this meeting. at the meeting it became clear to sykes that vitamin not gaster was the most important zionist. this is also the moment where most of the cast is dislodged. sykes's part on the french side because i haven't liked best guest it been insistent that this should be a jewish state and nothing less coming into being after the war and peace. clearly wanted scientists who were much more willing to compromise with the interests of the great powers and the viceroy was certainly happy to fit that bill. the meetings between the zionists and the government seemed to give momentum to the idea of british support for a jewish homeland in palestine and their potential role in its administration.
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but the secret agreements between britain and france which formed the basis of the future division of the ottoman empire planned to put palestine under international administration any change would have to be negotiated with france. niamh so-called of emerged as the man to talk to the french and. the story. but would she give. circolo became the acknowledged lead diplomat for zionism and all the accounts say that he had an extremely sort of elegant bearing and wore very fine clothing and that his manners were polished and polite and smooth silky smooth so that he could talk. on an equal basis with the representatives of the
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german kaiser or the. british government or whatever so the day after the meeting. between sykes and the zionist leaders sykes brought socolow to meet the french diplomat pekoe what sikes wanted was for sokolow to a persuade pekoe that zionism must be taken seriously that zionism really was the key to winning the war. and that the zionists would only help the allies win the war if britain was the main power in palestine not france for trade off
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because they didn't pretty not get all made but featured hmong so called offered up almost all khwaja won't watch. put out for that core i reckon. reeve don't like. our bodies and also mossad will proved there's not a kid of say course a record of that the our home was not all there to greet them i'd tell you we the three of them i'm in psych snuff saw in a circle of you know what a w n e n o f rasa or your mother had this you can associate my more or less and british cabinet or that often know that the situation of friends so we were at before. bill cabin at the english c.a.a. or look in already different so into a lot of cities it's hard to know how much influence sykes ultimately had over british policy making he was given more prominence in british policy making around the middle east during the war years than he ever deserved he was
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a relatively ill educated inexperienced man whose only connection to the ottoman world had been as a tourist. so for this man to be playing such a role in the holes of power over deciding british policy towards the near east seems to us today to be anomalous indeed ridiculous. regardless of psych's role things continue to progress for the zionists and in june one nine hundred seventeen british foreign secretary arthur balfour asked high in vitamin to present his demands as a declaration and promise to try and persuade his government to adopt its. the leading zionist form the political committee and drafted their demands and then submitted them to the british government. this original document was one of the first drafts written at the imperial hotel in london on the seventeenth of july one
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thousand nine hundred seventeen. it's also introduced a new term and concept the national home of the jewish people so in the initial side this drafting of the declaration. there were protests most saw this lead. to no one cycle of that there's no mention of the terminology of a jewish state that is said that talking about a national home as this is a trial of what the size trying to achieve and so close response was that we mustn't go too far we have to take small steps we have to go with what is acceptable to the british government at this time and then slowly slowly we can evolve course once we have this in hand. and if you look at what i mean at that really could not have been could be.
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certain. that under saddam. only one. thing. on the eighteenth of september one thousand nine hundred seventeen there was a meeting of the british war cabinet the foreign secretary arthur balfour was absent. the secretary of state for india edwin montague who was jewish strongly disagreed with the declaration. he was opposed to zionism and said i deny that palestine is today associated with the jews or properly be regarded as a fit place for them to live montague thought a french to clear ration for porting zionism in june one nine hundred seventeen was anti semitic and negotiated changes to the british version as it went through several drafts. c.
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is not a battle at them. there are about the world at. war out of the last elite here but all allisat adam assessment of corker c s c. yes good thing feel. that we. are both there on the whole she will amount to good she will look forward to her both to see if your move she got most who your. daughter is but your. people gonna have a good year you being belle's to. the well resentment of you. a few days later secretary of state for war by counts milner and the jewish politician philip magnus sent a modified version to the cabinet it incorporated some of montague's changes.
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including the caviar that quote nothing shall be done that might prejudice the rights and political status enjoyed by such jews who are fully contented with their existing nationality and citizenship. drafting especially by a board member that appeared by september was closer to the language that would eventually be adopted in november of nine hundred seventeen namely speaking not about palestine as a whole. but. some sort of presence in palestine on behalf of the jews which is quite different than that could kill me we were at before it how man. not. all of the international
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. a literary if what ana called me there and look at all in national where one may. have been made. but no not to the national home and i would not the national home yanni worked on only i would be fearful of the and. the committed zionists wanted to ensure the declaration was clear that the whole of historic palestine would be a national homeland exclusively for the jewish people. the latest draft was sent to high invites men who in turn center to the zionist movement in the united states for their feedback. there was some consultation you know during the summer of one thousand nine hundred seventeen with the united states in the early drafts. the imprint of the zionist
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elements in britain would have referred to pella stone in its entirety as being for some sort of jewish and b. and those elements eventual e were modified before the drafting was finalized another key part of the terminology that emerged out of the drafting was in some british redrafting was sort of for the jewish people it was written the jewish race adventure this was taken out but i think it's very revealing. that british officials wanted to use this kind of terminology because after all this was how they understood the jews of the world as being a racial group when that world it tremendous power and also could be inspired all together as one unit behind the cause of zionism supported by britain and the allies it's striking that the existing arab people in the region were not named at
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all they're simply called the quote existing non jewish communities in palestine the three point that if you do it but say that we are going to do either but at least we demand far these critters are absent from the government. the north reaver ownership men you know all these are settled in order you know he read it to you you know bugger the opportunity or cow the opportunity. by october nineteenth seventeen the final draft of the balfour declaration was ready and waiting only british government final approval. there was a rumor that germany was about to issue a similar declaration supporting the rights of the jews in palestine. when bell for her he rushed to get his final draft discussed at the cabinet meeting on the thirty
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first of october one thousand nine hundred nineteen. so when we think about the centenary of the balfour declaration everyone considers second of november nineteenth seventeen as the moment of the day creation itself but it was actually agreed to by the british cabinet on the thirty first of october and this was a hugely significant meeting and in the minutes of that meeting balfour ri it's rates the principle reasons for supporting zionism and highlights it's expected propaganda effects amongst jews around the world particularly in the united states and in russia the argument was was put forward most strongly by lord balfour at the meeting of october thirty first and what he argued was that issuing this declaration would be extremely helpful for the british in solidifying the support of the united states and also in countering propaganda
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from germany the critical thing to remember about british diplomatic pronouncements is that what one individual says does not represent the views of the government as a whole and you will find many different points of view among british officials in the years one thousand seven hundred one thousand eight hundred and right into the early years of the mandate but the british were very clear that they had not promised statehood to the zionist movement they had no interest in doing so the british did not support jewish nationalism they did not support arab nationalism they supported british imperialism but this is also the meeting where lord curzon. it was a member of the walk happened it disquiet about the possible effects of supporting zionism on the palestinian arab population and the palestinian opposition is completely disregarded lord curzon wrote a paper to the cabinet asking what was quote to become of the people of this
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country. there were over half a million syrian arabs a mixed community with arab hebrew canaanite greek egypt shouldn't possibly crusaders blood they and their forefathers of occupied the country for the best part of one thousand five hundred years they own the soil they profess the mohammedan faith they will not be content either to be explode free eight hundred jewish immigrants or to act merely is he was of wood and drawers of water to the latter but his prescient remarks fell on deaf ears it's like who tells high bites at the end of the workout that it's meeting dr it's a boy as though they've witnessed the birth of the agreement to create jewish national home as a baby in the middle east. the final draft of the balfour declaration was sixty seven words long. his majesty's
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government view with favor the establishment in palestine of a national home for the jewish people and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object. it being clearly understood but nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non jewish communities in palestine all the rights and political status enjoyed by jews in any other country i should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the zionist for the ration your sincerely are for james balfour. in terms of international law it really has very little standing in international law you know treaties between nations have significance. but governments after an
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issue policy statements statements of intention about what they plan to do and those who really don't have any standing as as a matter of of law for britain this was. i suppose you would say a statement of its intention as to what it would do if it were to take over belostoma which of course it had not yet done as of november one nine hundred seventeen it's going to go to whether you like that. she. should have been done you are if. you be so though because your mind. show you are fewer only two years after the declaration a church leader in jerusalem wrote to british prime minister lloyd george about jews in palestine trying to control holy sites. lloyd george's
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office had said that high invites men didn't want to do anything affecting the rights of arabs it said he simply wanted to be involved in a council to help provide refuge to jews. in russia and eastern europe. this exchange suggested that britain felt it had not promised a jewish state but simply a place for them to live alongside the arabs. when the league of nations set out the british mandate in palestine in one nine hundred twenty three it made britain responsible for implementing the balfour declaration. as a result jewish immigration to palestine increased as did arab opposition to it expressed in a series of palestinian protests against britain in the one nine hundred twenty s. they understood the people of palestine to be muslims and christians but did not that they would constitute a national community that would seek national independence. after the war very
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quickly when it becomes clear that palestinian arab nationalists and mobilizing against zionism the british government a quick to see a major problem the balfour declaration had put in train a series of events that began to signal its deep flaws. arab descent built to the three year revolts between one nine hundred thirty six and one nine hundred thirty nine it was a nationalist uprising against the british administration demanding arab independence and the end of jewish immigration it was in the pill commission of nine hundred thirty seven that the british first recognized that instead of balancing communities they had set motion a rivalry between incompatible national jewish and palestinian arabs. and it was at that point that they try to solve the problem by dividing palestine into two states arab and jewish through
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a partition plan and i think there you have the first recognition or admission from british officials of the failure of the balfour declaration. in maine one nine hundred thirty nine the british government published a policy document on palestine called a white paper it's abandoned the partitioning of palestine into two states and called instead for an independent palestine in which arabs and jews would share government. it limited jewish immigration to seventy five thousand for five years and said that the arab majority should determine future immigration levels. it's also said that balfour had not meant to create a jewish state at the expense of the arabs any more than the mcmahon has same correspondence twenty four years before had promised an arab state to shareef hossain of mecca but the white paper met opposition and was dropped. the british government a quick to see
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a major problem but there is no way that they can back away from support for zionism because this becomes the basis for their justification for being in the holy land their commitment to supporting the movement in the balfour declaration which becomes in shrines in international law in the terms of the mandate for palestine. so the british stuck with zionism they didn't believe that scientists wanted independent jewish state hood and after the war became very clear that actually the vast majority of scientists didn't only want statehood they expected i think if we're trying to assess whether or not britain's policy towards zionism in the first world war served british interests or not the first thing we have to appreciate is the key reason that they supported side was based on an incorrect idea they believed that they could mobilize something that they saw a jewish power around the world behind the allied cause so first of all that was entirely wrong and didn't happen because the jewish power is fate is force.
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in september one nine hundred thirty nine german expansionism led to the second world war over sixty million people died including between five and six million jews the majority in nazi concentration camps. the british mandate ended at midnight on the fourteenth of may nine hundred forty eight and immediately the formation of the state of israel was announced. justified by the terms of the balfour declaration issued thirty one years before. while israelis celebrated the birth of their nation seven hundred thousand palestinians were forced into camps and exile. you know. for palestinians the
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balfour declaration represents the moment an imperial power promised their land away to another people. is that this. rich. they hold bell for responsible for their expulsion displacement and occupation.
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how i once again the weather set fair across a good part of australia yeah we got a little bit of cloud just rolling through the bite as per usual that will introduce some slightly cooler air into the southeast including nineteen twenty celsius here just wanted to show us just around that east coast of queensland to notice up towards the sunshine coast going to choose that should be a tad dry brighter cooler still down towards the southeast seventeen or eighteen celsius but it will be fine and dry lots of sunshine around little more cloud the sunshine easing towards western australia but perth still getting up to around twenty one celsius and not faring too badly not so bad to across news even a little bit of cloud just coming in here western side of the country western side of the south and could catch one of two showers for a monday nine hundred and christ getting up to around seventeen or eighteen in oakland over the next couple days and that wetter weather as you can see still in place for the south if you move through the week further north
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a little bit of wet weather lots of wet weather actually coming into japan some really heavy downpours into q shoot into honshu twenty three celsius for it does turn. to the fair amount of cloud as we go on through tuesday fairly cloudy it's fine and dry for the korean peninsula. al jazeera is investigative units reveals tactics used by anti muslim organizations to instigate a fear of his not all your universities there are problems they both have a place where their recruiting this stuff is toxic he's a poison sales well we saw the number of attacks of mostly women and men across the country completely skyrocket guys in front of the cloister holding a gun and if they are not there's blood flowing all over my leg al jazeera investigations islamophobia incorporated.


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